269 Thesis Topics That Will Earn You a Master’s Degree in 2023

Thesis topics

Every postgraduate student needs a thesis to earn a Master’s degree. It serves as a reflection that you have understood the program’s foundation. Most graduate students find it challenging to get good thesis topics that will earn validation from their supervisors. Our essay writers have developed a guide on selecting a good topic and provided many topics you can choose from. They also help postgraduate students with their thesis and dissertation research.

Topics & Ideas for Theses

You’ve made a great choice for your thesis topic if you concur with the following statements:

  1. You are drawn to this topic. If you are interested in your study topic, it will be simpler for you to work on it. Remember that you will need to invest many hours going over different data. Keep your motivation high.
  2. The subject is beneficial to your career. If you want to work in academia, pick a topic that you can use to conduct additional research. Pick something that would look well on your resume if you were to work in the field.
  3. Enough study data are readily available. Avoid picking a subject that is too unimportant or unusual. Finding enough pertinent information is crucial. To find out if you can do it, speak with your supervisor.
  4. The subject is neither too broad nor too specific. If not, it will be more difficult for you to locate reliable sources and pertinent information.
  5. You already know how more about it. List potential thesis topics that touch on the subjects you have previously studied. You’ll be able to assess your opportunities and save some time.
  6. Your subject is unique. Verify that the topic hasn’t been covered in detail in another article. Your original addition to the research gives your work value. There is little point in continuing with a topic if someone has previously looked into it.

Best Ten Thesis Topics

  1. The effects of obesity
  2. Social media’s influence
  3. Growth in the economy and contentment.
  4. The American feminist movement.
  5. The COVID-19 pandemic’s impact.
  6. Racism in educational institutions.
  7. The employment market is overeducated.
  8. DNA evidence in law enforcement.
  9. Methods for predicting sales.
  10. The disparity in athlete pay.

Computer Science Thesis Ideas

Everywhere we look, we see computers. It is unthinkable to picture life without them, from homes to hospitals. Many employment choices are open to you with a master’s degree in computer science. These are some thesis topics you can write about:

  1. The most recent advancements in AI’s application to healthcare services. The cost of healthcare for Americans is high. Using computer algorithms is one approach to cutting costs. Using this technology research subject, you can investigate how AI assists doctors with their jobs.
  2. Public institution computer security. Many allegations of data theft from the US government by hackers have surfaced in recent years. Investigate public cybersecurity with this dissertation topic. Discuss measures to strengthen cybersecurity procedures as well.
  3. Real-time object detection is a feature of visual recognition system architecture. Talk about a neural network-based object detection system. Pay attention to the virtual setting. This popular subject in computer science can be modified for use in practical situations.
  4. Use of blockchain outside of financial technologies. Examine and debate the effects of utilizing blockchain technology outside the finance industry. Look at how it is used, for instance, in government offices and public services. The application of proven algorithms can be explored through this topic.

More Thesis Topics on Computers

  1. Text structures and machine learning. Talk about different text categorization methods. Pay attention to the texts’ intricate hierarchical arrangements. Postgraduate students would benefit from this subject.
  2. Security, functionality, and use of encrypted search. Talk about the use of encryptions to safeguard data. Describe how we can make it better for efficient information searching.
  3. AI’s use in education. Look at how algorithms can enhance learning. This subject can be changed for different fields. Pick AI in business or agriculture as an example.
  4. The present and future of graphics and visual computers. CAD software is now a standard component of any engineer’s toolbox. You might examine the potential of those programs in your thesis. What would make them perform better? Are they susceptible to becoming out of style?
  5. Indexing and processing of multimedia databases. Technology is needed to search through multimedia databases like Netflix and YouTube. The best practices can be surveyed in this dissertation. Alternatively, rename the title and concentrate your research on the company.
  6. AI marketing: Using algorithms to make advertising more effective. You can select a certain marketing theme from the examples of research questions in the previous list. Then talk about the consequences of such algorithms.
  7. Research model computation in virtual environments.
  8. Issues with automated vehicle cybersecurity.
  9. Safety flaws with automated driving and AI.
  10. Perspectives for medical imaging with computer graphics.
  11. Examine the application of computer algorithms in medical analysis.
  12. Talk about how bioinformatics is helping to enhance healthcare.
  13. What role does computer-aided design play in producing vehicle parts?
  14. Examine the recommended procedures for testing distributed systems at the system level.

10 More Thesis Topics on Computers

  1. XML-based web-based document management systems.
  2. The best cluster generation algorithms.
  3. Ways to enhance Open Web Architecture
  4. Analyze software solutions for better energy efficiency.
  5. A case study and examination of the protection of systems against terrorist assaults.
  6. New techniques for managing risks while developing software.
  7. Examine how the amount of Web space needed is evolving.
  8. Examine the impact of e-publishing on libraries.
  9. Using secure runtime and programming environments, new techniques for analyzing malware, viruses, and worm activity.
  10. Examine fault recovery and redundancy in the 4G wireless network.
  11. Compare and contrast the implementation of the best and heuristic algorithms for creating clusters.
  12. Examine the impact of full-text databases on search engines.
  13. Software developers can manage projects using agile techniques.
  14. A risk analysis of software development for effective employment.
  15. Research the security protocols used by WLAN networks.
  16. An overview of malicious botnets and network worms.
  17. What are the best practices for developing ICT systems?

Humanities and Art History Thesis Ideas

Do you wish to express your zeal in words? Do you want to tell the world what you think? The best program for you would be to get a Master’s in arts or humanities.

  1. The past and present of cinematic history. Focus on the history of film when writing your history thesis. Investigate the period beginning with the Lumiere Brothers’ earliest short films. Add some examples from contemporary Hollywood to close the conversation.
  2. A case study of Hollywood movies as art or commerce. Discuss the relationship between financial gain and artistic expression. Modern film is the center of this fascinating arts subject. Both contemporary commercial successes and art house films can be used as examples.
  3. For this art thesis, Bollywood versus Hollywood contrasts the two film production hubs. The direction, genres, and stories of Hollywood and Bollywood movies are then discussed about local cultures.
  4. The application of visual design tools. The arts and computer science are intertwined in this dissertation topic. The emphasis is on visualization tools’ role in developing design projects.
  5. Racism in contemporary writing. Consider how the histories of racism have evolved. Give samples from this era’s poetry and literature. Compare it to earlier works that have been released.
  6. Afrofuturism’s cultural aesthetic in literature. You can investigate the interaction of the arts using this dissertation topic. See how Afrofuturism reflects culture, philosophy of science, and history.
  7. The importance of poetry to society. Examine writing that addresses ecological issues. Talk about environmental issues and environmental consciousness.
  8. Graphic novels: the top examples and how they affect the growth of literature. What does the creation of graphic novels based on literary masterpieces mean? Include the query of whether graphic novels can be accepted into the canon of literature.

More Thesis Topics on Humanities and Art History

  1. In the 1950s and 1960s, absurdist theater was popular. Talk about this branch of theatrical art. Consider its history and the reasons it attained influence.
  2. Post-World War II literature and film. Cite examples from books and movies. Talk about the main themes of post-World War II literature.
  3. The Czech avant-garde and futurism: bridging East and West in European art.
  4. Research the hero archetype phenomena.
  5. Evaluate dancing as a meditation technique.
  6. Go over the components that all African dances share in common.
  7. Regional folk dances in Western Europe.
  8. Go through local dances and dance as a religious practice.
  9. The contemporary art form of animation.
  10. Examine the future potential of the glass-making industry.
  11. Examine The Beatles’ cultural influence outside of music.
  12. American literary censorship.
  13. Consider the relationship between the environment and arts.
  14. Is the Heidelberg Project a role model for producing art in cities?
  15. Examine 20th-century kinetic sculptures.
  16. How does social activity manifest in 20th-century rock music?
  17. Jazz’s potential for resurgence in the twenty-first century.
  18. The evolution of design throughout human history (the ancient times, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, etc.).
  19. Design as art
  20. Design philosophy.
  21. Diverse design branches (interior design, car design, toy design, etc.).
  22. Unique stylistic characteristics of a certain designer.
  23. Web design is the pinnacle of contemporary design.
  24. The importance of design in society.
  25. The rise of Communism about Stendhal, number 33.
  26. The connection between literature and politics in the 19th century.
  27. A case study and analysis of artists and art during wartime.
  28. The connection between modern art and the misery of Americans.
  29. Examine the relationship between racism and the family.

List of Science Thesis Topics

Running many experiments is necessary for a science thesis. There will undoubtedly be many errors. The one that succeeds, however, could represent the next significant advance. Find a good study topic from the list of following topics:

  1. Injections of bacteria to treat cancerous tumors. A relatively recent method of treating cancer involves injecting microorganisms into tumors. Review the method’s mechanism of action and assess its potential to treat cancer.
  2. AI and computer vision for cancer detection. Investigate the enhanced accuracy of AI-assisted cancer screening. Include hospital applications and implications of early detection.
  3. Transplantation and organ donation ethics. Examine the morality of encouraging organ donation with this science dissertation topic. Include the effects on medical practice and research.
  4. A molecular and epidemiological strategy for cancer prevention. This topic suggestion involves evaluating the state of knowledge regarding the causes of cancer and potential preventative measures.
  5. Techniques for accelerating vaccine research and testing. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated how slowly vaccines are developed. Making sure that testing is done correctly takes time. These topics could be covered in your biochemistry dissertation.

More Topics on Science

  1. The research stage is now being done on ultra-fast rechargeable batteries. There is much interest in the subject of batteries and energy. Using this topic, you can look at improving aluminum-ion battery design. Include strategies for reducing the charging period.
  2. Electrospraying is nanotechnology used in medicine delivery. Nanotechnologies have a huge potential, according to recent research. The electrospraying method, in particular, improves the effectiveness of nanoparticle delivery.
  3. The population’s prevalence of different Helicobacter Pylori virulence traits. To determine how many patients have Helicobacter Pylori infections, do a quantitative study and look at a sample of individuals.
  4. The connection between a person’s gut flora and appetite. The hypothesis that gut microbiota has various effects on a person’s body can be explored in your research. Review the effects of various gut microbiomes on the treatment of obesity.
  5. Is the era of antibiotics over? Examine the drop in antibiotic use and the causes behind it. Talk about how bacteria are always changing and need treatments other than antibiotics. Include quantitative information regarding a particular disease type in this dissertation.
  6. Human DNA research using CRISPR.
  7. New findings in the study of human evolution.
  8. Siberian Denisovans: a newly found form of hominid.
  9. Research AI’s application in archaeology.
  10. Examine the genomic sequencing of the Neanderthals.
  11. How can the efficiency of solar cells be increased?
  12. Modern production’s carbon footprint: How can businesses harm the environment?
  13. Examine the application of cesium in solar panels.

More Thesis Topics on Science

  1. Is the usage of batteries ending in the age of supercapacitors?
  2. Evaluate the effectiveness of robot suits for those who are paralyzed permanently.
  3. Potential uses for microscale medical robots.
  4. Learn about the mechanisms behind stem cell mobilization.
  5. Talk about the morality of automated vehicles.
  6. Can we create robots that can go into space?
  7. Assess the effectiveness and potential of rechargeable batteries based on lithium.
  8. 24. The ethics and morality of stem cell research.
  9. To what extent does genetics influence or control behavior?
  10. A look at ways to reduce risk factors after a stroke.
  11. Examine Chinese herbal medicine and its application to Western treatment.
  12. Examine how schools affect childhood obesity.
  13. New ways to collect information that is helpful from existing data.
  14. A thorough examination of the variables influencing the immune system’s deterioration with age.
  15. Analyze the potential impact of nanotechnology on the environment and human health.
  16. Analyze the toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles at a level.
  17. The potential of nanotechnology to treat certain cancers.
  18. A case study and analysis of the care given to individuals who have lost their memories
  19. Examine the use of DNA forensics to identify missing persons and crime victims.
  20. How immune system disorders react when T-cell subsets are activated.
  21. The impact and significance of IT in the biomedical profession.

Architecture Thesis Topics

Architecture Thesis Topics

There is more to architecture than just beauty. That has been obvious since the “form follows function” idea gained popularity. There is much to learn about architecture, whether you prefer Baroque or Bauhaus. These are some topics to base your thesis on:

  1. The British Empire’s religious architecture Look into how religious structures changed and how they affected architecture as a whole.
  2. Early twentieth-century modernist architecture in the USSR. Compare the USSR’s modernist architecture to that of other nations.
  3. The impact of urban greening on architectural design. The main focus of the dissertation’s research can be green roofs.
  4. The history of brutality in New York. Using historical evidence, Describe New York’s brutalism’s impact on modern architecture.
  5. Indigenous communities in Australia today. Using media and academic research examples, indicate how Aboriginal settlements are now.
  6. The transformation of urban planning in the twenty-first century. Give a thorough analysis of developments in urban design using London, Hong Kong, and New York as examples.
  7. Seattle’s architectural heritage. Research several architectural styles seen in Seattle, then compare them in a proposal.
  8. Including cultural elements in environmental design. You can utilize major Asian cities as the main examples of how culture and architecture harmonize with this idea.
  9. The residential neighborhood architecture from the second part of the 20th century. Select one or more sizable cities (such as Berlin, Miami, or Kyoto) as the starting point for your investigation.
  10. The background of the Russian avant-garde. 11. Use of computer visuals in architecture. Use both Soviet and contemporary Russian studies on avant-garde to appropriately explain the subject.

10 More Topics on Architecture

  1. Examine the styles of contemporary furniture.
  2. Integration of green technologies in architecture and ecology.
  3. Talk about the multiculturalism of modern urban design.
  4. A study of New York’s architectural history among American cities.
  5. Case study on contemporary city planning.
  6. Examine the use of wood in contemporary architecture.
  7. The aesthetics and utility of commercial architecture.
  8. Assess the American municipal building designs.
  9. Postmodernist architecture’s use of creativity.
  10. How might smart home technology be incorporated into architecture?
  11. Small-scale dwellings: a study of the rise in popularity of tiny homes
  12. Talk about how lighting is used in architectural design.
  13. Research structural design advancements made in the digital era.
  14. What effects does inclusive architecture have?
  15. Reusing materials and places is a key component of sustainable architecture.
  16. Building with renewable energy.
  17. Evaluate open-plan housing for American families.
  18. Research the architecture of family houses.
  19. Research-friendly architecture for families in the middle class.

Thesis Topics in English Literature & World Literature

If your New Year’s resolution was to read through the 100 most significant classical masterpieces again, you might wish to think about creating a thesis in higher-level English. Check out these interesting questions:

  1. A thorough stylistic examination of Franz Kafka’s The Trial. Describe the literary devices used by Kafka in his story.
  2. The Hound of the Baskervilles’ impact on the evolution of contemporary detective fiction. Make many comparisons between The Hound and contemporary detective novels to determine their influence.
  3. The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum discusses Women’s roles in Heinrich Boll’s novels. Analyze the German author’s treatment of women in his prose using the book.
  4. A case study of the New York Times analysis of how terrorism is represented in contemporary journalism. Choose a few terrorism-related items from the New York Times and explain how they are portrayed (keywords, images, etc.).
  5. A formalist study of The Brothers Karamazov using Dostoevsky Explains the formalist method to the reader before evaluating the novel.
  6. How sexual violence is portrayed in works of young adult literature. Choose a few YA books from the 2010s to use in your investigation.
  7. Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett, which employs repetition. Examine the play’s use of repetition for emphasis and other effects.
  8. Cats’ Eye by Margaret Atwood’s feminist and gender perspectives. Review the book from a feminist perspective and discuss how it handles gender issues.
  9. How does The Man in the High Castle by Phillip K. Dick use intertextuality? As many literary and historical references as possible should be used to explain how and why Dick uses them.

More Topics on Literature

  1. Herman Hesse’s contribution to the study of Steppenwolf’s impact on postmodern American literature. Discuss the elements Hesse uses in this book typical of postmodern writing using Steppenwolf as your main source.
  2. In what ways does racism appear in classical literature?
  3. Talk about how The Handmaid’s Tale portrays women as oppressed.
  4. A comparison of the gender roles in The Miniaturist and A Doll’s House.
  5. The works of David Harrower contain moral complexity.
  6. The Perks of Being a Wallflower’s literary devices.
  7. The Murder in the Rue Morgue’s setting and its impact on the detective genre.
  8. Go over the clichés The Moonstone is credited with popularizing.
  9. Examine how Skinner’s Rule portrays police operations.
  10. Evaluate how Victorian Gothic horror has influenced modern culture.
  11. The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo’s social commentary.
  12. Examine Gibson’s Neuromancer’s cyberpunk components.
  13. Social equality themes in contemporary writing.
  14. Examine the opinions expressed by Native American authors in Nature’s Poem.
  15. A critique of recent children’s books
  16. The works of Charlotte Bronte contain Gothic themes.
  17. A comparison between Dracula and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
  18. The Picture of Dorian Gray’s use of terror.
  19. Consider how J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye addresses the relationship between society and mental health.
  20. The romanticism and magical realism of Perfume: The Story of a Murderer.
  21. How does William S. Burroughs’ Naked Lunch’s use of the cut-up technique affect the narration?

Criminal Justice Thesis Ideas

Are you a forensics student who would rather conduct a study than perform police work? A criminology dissertation is a wise choice in that situation. This enables you to combat crime while sitting at your workplace. These are some topics to write about:

  1. A quantitative study on the recidivism rates of Latino and minor first-time offenders. Study a group of first-time offenders who are a certain age (e.g., 18 to 25 years old).
  2. A comparison of the gun violence episodes in the USA in the 2010s. Pick a few well-known instances and contrast them with one another.
  3. Unsettling assertions: the part witnesses play in potentially baseless allegations. You may discuss the unreliability of statements in this dissertation while citing supported examples.
  4. A case study of Berlin and Hamburg reveals the tendencies of drug trafficking in Germany’s main cities. Examine how these trends changed in the 2010s.
  5. Corruption and money laundering in the United States in the twenty-first century. Make a dissertation about corruption strategies using news stories.
  6. The mental health and self-view of repeat sexual offenders. See if their perception of themselves changes.
  7. Risk factors and causes of campus shootings in the United States. Analyze the instances of mass shootings using recent and historical data.
  8. How cyberbullying affects Australian adolescent suicide rates (13-17 years old). Your dissertation report can be based on various studies on cyberbullying printed in scholarly journals in Australia.
  9. Parental abuse and how it affects how serial killers view their victims. Talk about the connections between abusive behavior and potential sadistic tendencies.
  10. The development of forensic interviews in the United States. current studies and methods used to develop it

10 More Topics in Criminology

  1. The application of AI to forensic investigations.
  2. The effects of juvenile crime and its long-term effects.
  3. Repeated arrests for drug-related offenses among American kids.
  4. The effect of having incarcerated parents on how a youngster views crime.
  5. Examine the US criminal justice system’s changes.
  6. Make suggestions for ways to make the juvenile detention system better.
  7. Analysis of reports on police officer misuse of authority.
  8. The War on Drugs case and racial justice.
  9. What are some potential alternatives to prison?
  10. A study of how the general population views contemporary serial killers.
  11. Sniffer dog training is number.
  12. The consequences of eyewitness testimony.
  13. Harvey Weinstein as a case study in Hollywood abuse.
  14. Discrimination against African Americans in inquiries.
  15. A study of violence in colleges.
  16. Legal ramifications of the legalization of medical marijuana.
  17. Criminal justice ethics: the issue of secrecy.
  18. Examine the difficulties posed by investigations into domestic abuse.
  19. Make recommendations for strategies to stop crimes in schools.
  20. Gender prejudice in criminal investigations.

Geography Thesis Topics

Geography Thesis Topics

This area is for you if you like learning about the mysteries of Earth. These are thesis ideas from migration studies to local phenomena:

  1. Qualitative investigation on species that became extinct in the 20th century. Discuss the impact of humans on various species.
  2. Current problems with Arctic exploration. Talk about the challenges and particulars of such explorations.
  3. A comparison of American and British urban backyard gardening. You can contrast their features and designs (for example, vegetation used for decoration).
  4. The reasons for and effects of the 2010s floods in the USA. Address one of the main causes, which is climate change.
  5. Use of contemporary technology to prevent ecosystem changes. Give a few instances of how technology helps ecosystems survive.
  6. A comparison of the USA and Canada’s holiday destinations in the 2000s. Show what changes in preferences were noted in these nations and which locations were particularly well-liked.
  7. A case study of Miami’s residents’ perceptions of environmentally friendly technologies and their effects on the environment. Describe the launch of several projects in Miami using eco-friendly technologies.
  8. The adverse effects of climate change on Iceland’s weather. Discuss the impact of these changes on Icelandic tourism.
  9. How industrialization affects climate change. Identify the causes of climate change and build your argument on industrialization’s effects.
  10. Examine the land uses for greenfield and brownfield development projects.

10 More Topics on Geography

  1. Examine the value of red salmon to Kamchatka.
  2. A study of migratory trends about the social impacts of climate change.
  3. The potential of local community gardens in disadvantaged areas.
  4. Research the connection between storm strength and climate change.
  5. How can gentrification be stopped in your neighborhood?
  6. Consider the consequences and effects of coastal tourism.
  7. How reservoir placement affects water quality.
  8. What impact did industrialization have on Chicago’s growth?
  9. Examine the extent of soil pollution in your neighborhood.
  10. Evaluate the air quality in your city.
  11. Environmental tourism’s background and viewpoints.
  12. Variations in the chemistry of the soil in various places.
  13. How organic farming has affected the local water supply.
  14. Evaluate the environmental impact of tomatoes grown organically versus conventionally.
  15. Learn about the local air pollution levels and information about airborne diseases.
  16. What connection exists between cliff vegetation and rock climbing?
  17. Research how volcanic eruptions affect soil fertility.
  18. How is the area still being impacted by the Chornobyl disaster?
  19. Identify the flood patterns in the location of your choice.

Sociology Thesis Topics

Sociology is the study of social interaction. Writing a thesis is an excellent option for further exploring a specific topic. You are free to be as descriptive as you like. This is a selection of sociology thesis topics:

  1. The stigma of being a single parent and how it affects parent-child interactions and family quality of life. Give instances from recent studies that show how the dynamics of these relationships change over time due to stigma.
  2. Developments and obstacles in Saudi Arabia’s women empowerment in the 2000s. Discuss the impact of this empowerment on laws and women’s rights.
  3. Young adults’ self-perception and long-term alcohol addiction. Research shows whether these folks’ perceptions of themselves have changed dramatically due to addiction.
  4. The impact of adoption on relationships between parents and children. Describe the difficulties that these families confront.
  5. A comparison of American and British family meal customs. What specific variations exist, and how can they be justified?
  6. The impact of the emo culture on high school student suicide rates. Discuss the impact of these cultures on teenage behavior.
  7. The secularization rates among elderly people in urban and rural locations. Compare the prices and describe the differences.
  8. The impact of forced outings on transgender people and the ensuing modifications to their quality of life. Describe the dangers of forced outings and their impacts.
  9. A comparison of contemporary anti-nuclear movements in Japan and Germany. State which contrasts and similarities stand out.
  10. Performance levels of adolescents attending schools in underprivileged areas: a case study of Boston public schools. Consider various issues (poverty, restricted access to technology, etc.) that influence these youngsters’ performance rates when drafting your dissertation proposal.

10 More Thesis Topics in Sociology

  1. The immediate effect of the Black Lives Matter movement on racism.
  2. Examine the US’s minority bias reasons.
  3. The effect of affirmative action on how various racial groupings are seen.
  4. How religion affects how people feel about race.
  5. Examine the issues facing the LGBT community in the US.
  6. Preference for transgender studies.
  7. Social activism in the twenty-first century against discrimination based on gender.
  8. The long-term effects of social support in schools.
  9. Examine how schooling has changed since World War II.
  10. Examine US scholarship regulations.
  11. How student debt affects young people’s views of education in the US.
  12. A comparison of the results of public and private schooling.
  13. Examine how American immigrant families are preserving their cultural traditions.
  14. Making social justice movements conform to Marx’s conflict theory.
  15. Evaluate how social standards are evolving in the country of your choice.
  16. Prejudice-related attitudes among individuals from various social origins.
  17. Women’s rights in Western and Middle Eastern nations.
  18. How capitalism affects a person’s social ideals.
  19. How does capitalism improve society in various post-soviet nations?
  20. Contrast the availability of healthcare in autocracies and democracies.

Looking for Help with Thesis Writing?

Thesis writing is challenging for most graduate students. Following our guide and thesis topics above, you can write a thesis that earns you a Master’s degree. Still looking for help with a thesis? Our thesis writers have written for many students. Contact us for an estimate and get your thesis completed in time.

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